Non-invasive Ventilation (NIV)

Non-invasive ventilation

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV for short) is a form of respiratory therapy for patients with difficulty absorbing enough oxygen or expelling carbon dioxide. It is a method for supporting breathing that manages without securing the airways. In contrast to invasive ventilation in which users introduce an endotracheal tube or a supraglottic airway device into the trachea for airway management, non-invasive ventilation uses an NIV/CPAP mask.

Non-invasive ventilation and its benefits

Compared to pure oxygen therapy, in non-invasive ventilation, a non-invasive ventilator maintains a continuous positive pressure in the lung. This pressure is normally applied via a face or nasal mask which fits the patient’s face. The positive pressure supports increased oxygen absorption and expulsion of CO₂

At the same time, non-invasive ventilation has the advantage that it manages without the invasive measure of intubation. Early out-of-hospital use of non-invasive ventilation when treating acute respiratory failure may reduce both intubation rate and mortality1and thus reduce the risk of complications. Even if the hospital is only a short distance away, early non-invasive ventilation is a sensible step.2

Clinical pictures for treatment with non-invasive ventilation 

Emergency medical services can use non-invasive ventilation for a variety of respiratory diseases, such as: 

  • (Exacerbated) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Acute pulmonary failure
  • Cardiac pulmonary edema
  • Asthma
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning
Rescuers ventilate and transport patients on stretcher

WEINMANN’s modes of non-invasive ventilation as a solution 

All WEINMANN ventilators offer the option of non-invasive ventilation (NIV): The WEINMANN NIV devices MEDUMAT Standard² and MEDUVENT Standard have the following ventilation modes as non-invasive forms of ventilation via a mask: 

  • CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) 
  • CPAP + ASB (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure + Assisted Spontaneous Breathing) 
  • BiLevel + ASB, aPCV (Assisted Pressure-Controlled Ventilation) and PCV (Pressure-Controlled Ventilation)
NIV diagram CPAP

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) 

One of the most frequent forms of non-invasive ventilation is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure therapy (CPAP). 

In CPAP therapy, positive airway pressure is continuously maintained. CPAP can be used in the case of cardiac pulmonary edema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CPAP therapy can likewise eliminate carbon monoxide (CO) more quickly than pure oxygen inhalation in carbon monoxide poisoning.3

The value set for CPAP/PEEP is used to increase the pressure level of respiration in order to raise the functional residual capacity (FRC) of spontaneously breathing patients. Such patients are capable of breathing spontaneously at the specified pressure level without any kind of restriction. CPAP mode is used exclusively on patients with adequate spontaneous breathing.

NIV curve diagram with CPAP + ASB curve

CPAP with Assisted Spontaneous Breathing (ASB)

Assisted Spontaneous Breathing (ASB) is another form of non-invasive ventilation. It supports patients who are able to breathe spontaneously but who have difficulty absorbing enough oxygen and/or expelling CO2 due to dyspnea or respiratory muscle weakness. If CPAP and ASB are combined, then the ventilator automatically switches on pressure support at the moment of inspiration.

CPAP with pressure support (ASB) can be used for different diseases and conditions, such as exacerbated COPD, acute dyspnea or heart failure4

Diagram with BiLevel and ASB curve

BiLevel + ASB or BiPAP 

BiPAP (Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure), also known as BiLevel, is a non-invasive form of airway support in which one device generates two different airway pressures: a higher pressure during inspiration (inspiratory pressure) and a lower one during expiration (expiratory pressure). 

BiPAP/BiLevel is frequently used in combination with adjustable pressure support (ASB). The mode of two-stage pressure ventilationtogether with ASB (BiLevel + ASB) facilitates pressure-controlled ventilation in combination with free spontaneous breathing and adjustable pressure support. This mode is suitable for patients both with and without spontaneous breathing. During a predefined trigger time slot, the patient initiates a pressure-controlled breath. Otherwise it is possible to breathe either spontaneously or with pressure support.

Non-invasive BiLevel ventilation may be indicated in patients with acute pulmonary failure or exacerbated COPD.5 

Curve diagram for PCV mode

Pressure-Controlled Ventilation (PCV)/assisted Pressure-Controlled Ventilation (aPCV) 

Pressure-Controlled Ventilation is another form of non-invasive ventilation. PCV mode facilitates Pressure-Controlled Ventilation at fixed pressure levels for patients with or without spontaneous breathing. In the case of spontaneous breathing, it is possible to breathe freely during expiration.

Diagram with aPCV curve

aPCV mode facilitates assisted Pressure-Controlled Ventilation at a specified respiratory rate. In the case of spontaneous breathing, the patient can increase the ventilation rate and ventilation is synchronized with breathing. 

This mode is often used in patients being ventilated in a domestic setting. 

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with MEDUVENT Standard

Our video shows how NIV effectively provides respiratory support, minimizes risks and helps patients recover quickly. Ideal for respiratory therapy and emergency medicine practitioners looking for innovative solutions. 

More product informations:

WEINMANN’s modes of oxygen therapy as a solution

Airway management and ventilation are among the most important but also the most demanding measures in the emergency medical services.

MEDUMAT Standard2 permits oxygen therapy in which the patient inhales oxygen via a mask or a nasal cannula without breathing support. The demand function save oxygen, as it is administered exclusively during inspiration.

More product informations:

Demandflow mode for oxygen therapy

Rescuer operates MEDUMAT Easy<sup>CPR</sup>

In Demandflow mode, MEDUMAT Standard2 switches to breath-controlled O2 inhalation. Inhalation can be carried out using a ventilation mask. A low inhalation (trigger) pulse causes oxygen to flow until a slight overpressure interrupts the flow; expiration then takes place via the patient valve. This saves oxygen, as it is administered exclusively during inspiration. 

1Goodacre S et al.: Prehospital noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure: systematic review, network meta-analysis and individual patient data meta-analysis. Acad Emerg Med 21: 960-970, 2014

2Hensel M et al.: Prehospital non invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure is justified even if the distance to hospital is short. Multicenter, prospective, observational study, 2019

3Caglar B et al: The Impact of Treatment with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Prehosp Disaster Med Dec: 588-591, 2019.

4Rochwerg B et al.: Official ERS/ATS clinical practice guidelines:noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Guideline, 2017

5Rochwerg B et al.: Official ERS/ATS clinical practice guidelines:noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Guideline, 2017